Experts said the document acted as a "sales pitch" for continued funding.
The list - named the Non-Lethal Weapons Reference Book - is said to have been produced by the US Department of Defense's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD).
A copy of the report was obtained and published by "anti-secrecy" site Public Intelligence. The organisation has a track record of publishing US government documents relating to national security.
A spokeswoman for the US Department of Defense said she could neither confirm nor deny the document's authenticity.
Running to over 100 pages, the report details the characteristics of each weapon - as well as possible collateral damage and the policy implications of its use.
Typical effects of the weapons on the human body include temporary blindness, deafness and loss of movement.